THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL
Cap level: 2.8% of 1989 CFC consumption + 1989 HCFC consumption
Freeze : 1 January 1996
-35% : 1 January 2004
-65% : 1 January 2010
-90% : 1 January 2015
-99.5% : 1 January 2020
-100% : 1 January 2030
None specific but, "each Party shall endeavour to ensure that" HCFC use is
(a) "those applications where more other environmentally suitable alternative
substances or technologies are not available"
(b) "not outside of the areas of applications of the current controlled
(c) "selected in a manner that minimises ozone depletion, in addition to meeting
other environmental, safety and economic considerations."
THE EUROPEAN UNION (Political agreement - 21 December 1998)
1 January 1999: Freeze at 2.6% of CFC consumption in 1989 + total HCFC consumption
1 January 2001: Freeze at 2.0% of CFC consumption in 1989 + total HCFC consumption in
Phase-out Schedule for consumption:
-15% : 1 January 2002
-55% : 1 January 2003
-70% : 1 January 2004
-75% : 1 January 2008
-100% : 1 January 2010
Phase-out Schedule for Production:
1 January 2000: Freeze at 1997 levels
-65% : 1 January 2008
-80% : 1 January 2014
-85% : 1 January 2026
-100% : 1 January 2026
Controls to be reviewed by 31 December 2002.
Use prohibited from 1 January 1996.
Prohibited in non-contained uses and drain cleaning where HCFCs are not recovered
from 1 January 1996.
Prohibited in all uses, except for precision cleaning in aerospace and aeronautics
applications until 1 January 2008.
From 1 January 1996 - prohibited in equipment produced after 31 December 1995 as:
refrigerants in non-confined direct evaporation systems; refrigerants in domestic
refrigerators and freezers; in motor vehicle or trailer air conditioning; and in road
public transport air conditioning (except for military uses until 31 December 2008).
From 1 January 1998, prohibited in equipment produced after 31December 1997 for rail
public transport air conditioning and as a carrier gas for sterilisation substances in
From 1 January 2000, prohibited in equipment produced after 31December 1999 for use as
refrigerants in public distribution and cold stores and warehouses and as refrigerants for
equipment of 150kWs and over shaft input.
From 1 January 2001, prohibited in all other refrigeration and air-conditioning
equipment, where the equipment is produced on or after 1 January 2001, with the following
exceptions: from 1 January 2003, prohibited in fixed air-conditioning less than 100kW
cooling capacity, where the equipment is produced on or after 1 January 2003; from 1
January 2004 prohibited in reversible air-conditioning/heat pump systems, where the
equipment is produced on or after 1 January 2004.
From 1 January 2010, the use of virgin HCFCs is prohibited in maintenance and servicing
of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment.
From 1 January 2000, prohibited in production of integral skin foams for use in
safety applications and polyethylene rigid insulating foams.
From 1 January 2002, prohibited in production of extruded polystyrene rigid insulating
foams, except where used for insulated transport.
From 1 January 2003, prohibited in prohibited in production of polyurethane foams for
appliances, of polyurethane flexible faced laminate foams and of polyurethane sandwich
panels, except where the latter two are used for insulated transport.
From 1 January 2004, prohibited in production of all foams, including polyurethane
spray and block foams.
All other HCFC uses are prohibited. A number of derogations apply:
HCFC use controls do not apply to : laboratory uses, including research and
development; feedstock uses; processing agent uses.
Use is permitted as fire-fighting agents in existing systems to replace halons in
critical use applications (defined in an Annex) subject to the conditions that the halons
are replaced completely, those withdrawn are destroyed and 70% of the destruction costs
are met by the HCFC supplier.
The importation and placing on the market of products and equipment containing HCFCs is
banned from the date that the use restriction enters into force, unless the product or
equipment was manufactured before that date.
The HCFC use controls apply from 1 January 2010 to the use of HCFCs in the production
of products for export.
INDIVIDUAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
AUSTRIA (November 16, 1995)
As EC Regulation with the following considerations where none of the time limits apply:
The use of HCFCs is prohibited: as solvent, irrespective of the system used, after 1
January 2000; for the production of any type of foamed plastic after 1 January 2000 and as
a refrigerant for any application after 1 January 2002, except in equipment which have
been produced before that date.
All uses of HCFCs are banned immediately except for the following which are banned
from the dates listed:
1 January 1996: Jointing foam, rigid polyurethane, excluding insulating foam, flexible
and rigid P/U integral foam, rigid P/U insulating foam for district heating pipes.
1 January 2000: Mould release agent, flexible P/U with density <23 kg/m3, uses in
new commercial and industrial heat transfer systems and associated automatic equipment.
1 January 2002: Rigid XPS and P/U insulating foam for uses other than district heating
pipes, uses in existing household, commercial and industrial heat transfer systems and
associated automatic equipment, uses in research, development and laboratories.
FINLAND (Regulation April 2, 1998)
HCFC compounds may not be used:
1) in the production of rigid insulating foams, as of January 1, 2000;
2) in the production of integral skin foams used for safety applications, as of January
3) as a refrigerant in equipment installed and manufactured after December 31, 1999,
unless such use of HCFC compounds has already been banned under Council Regulation No.
4) as a solvent for purposes in which the use of HCFC compounds has not yet been banned
under Council Regulation No. 3093/94, as of January 1, 1999.
Products and equipment containing the HCFC compounds referred to in paragraph 1,
subparagraphs 1 and 3, may not be placed on the market as of January 1, 2000, and products
and equipment containing the HCFC compounds referred to in subparagraphs 2 and 4 may not
be placed on the market as of January 1, 1999.
As EC Regulation.
Compulsory recovery of refrigerant fluids. Owners of the equipment concerned mst ensure
that the fluids are recovered.
Ban on the placing on the market of HCFCs in disposable cylinders.
Phase-out of HCFC 22 in new refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment from 1
From 1 August 1991, ban on use of HCFC-22 in aerosols, packaging materials, foamed
dishes and trays and from 1 August 1993 in construction foams. Ban on HCFC 22 in all foam
uses from 1 January 2000.
Phase-out of other HCFCs from 1 January 2005.
Production, use, sale, import and export of HCFCs banned from 31 December 2008.
A decree (March 1994) bans the use, import and production of HCFCs with an ODP>0.065
from 1 January 2000.
For fire-fighting applications, products with a GWP>3400, with an ODP>0.065 and
with an atmospheric lifetime of greater than 42 years are forbidden.
Promote the appropriate disposal of equipment containing ozone depleting
substances. Regulate the placing on the market of these substances as synthetic foams,
solvents, refrigerants and fire extinguishing agents.
HCFC controls are as in the EC Regulation- Production, trade, import and export of
all products containing HCFCs will be banned as from 1 January 2015.
The use of HCFCs as solvents is only permitted if sufficient recapture
takes place according to specific legislative requirements.
The use of HCFCs as refrigerants is only permitted if refrigeration equipment is
leaktight according to the technical legislative requirements for refrigeration equipment.
Maintenance and servicing of refrigeration equipment is only permitted by certified
mechanics who are certified by the STEK-Institute. Certificates are only issued when the
mechanics are examined on theory and practice of the national requirements for
Production, trade, import and export of all insulation materials was banned as from 1
Phase-out of HCFCs in new equipment from 1 January 1998.
Phase-out of HCFCs for servicing of existing equipment 1 January 2002.
As of 1 January 1994 HCFCs may only be used for the manufacture of rigid foam plastics
for insulation purposes and as refrigerants.
Ban on supply and storage of HCFC in disposable cylinders. Venting of 'waste'
refrigerant is prohibited.
BELGIUM, GREECE, IRELAND, PORTUGAL as EC Regulation 3093/94.
Cap level: 2.8% 1989 CFC consumption + 1989 HCFC consumption.
(but effectively less than 1.5% due to import controls)
Freeze: 1 January 1996
-12% 1 January 2000
-23% 1 January 2002
-35% 1 January 2004
-47% 1 January 2006
-60% 1 January 2008
-72% 1 January 2010
-84% 1 January 2012
-96% 1 January 2014
-99.3% 1 January 2016
-100% 1 January 2030
Australian states are responsible for use controls and in the CFC areas have led to
significant differences throughout the country. No national use regulations are
CANADA (January 1999)
Cap level: as Montreal Protocol.
No person shall manufacture, use, sell, offer for sale or import any HCFC or any
product that contains or is intended to contain any HCFC if the HCFC or the product is for
use in areas of application in which a controlled substance has never been used in Canada.
(1) From July 1, 1999, no person shall manufacture or import a pressurized container
that contains 2 kg or less of any HCFC.
(2) On or after January 1, 2000, no person shall offer for sale or sell pressurized
container that contains 2 kg or less of any HCFC.
(a) a mold release agent used in the production of plastic and elastomeric materials;
(b) a spinnerette lubricant or cleaning spray used in the production of synthetic
(c) a document preservation spray;
(d) fire extinguishing equipment used for non-residential applications;
(e) a wasp and hornet spray;
(f) a foam insulation product;
(g) a lubricant, coating or cleaning fluid for commercial use on electrical or
electronic equipment or for aircraft maintenance, before January 1, 2001;
(h) refrigerant 412A(HCFC-22/HCFC-142b/octafluoropropane);
(i) refrigerant 5O9A(HCFC-22/octafluoropropane); or
(j) a pest control product before January 1, 2001 provided that the product was
registered under the Pest Control Products Act before January 1, 1999.
(k) an animal or human health care product, including any bronchial dilator, inhalable
steroid, topical anaesthetic and veterinary powder wound spray.
(l) an HCFC or a product that is to be used in a laboratory or for analysis.
From July 1, 1999, no person shall manufacture or import plastic foam in which any
HCFC has been used as a foaming agent, except:
(a) a foam insulation product; or
(b) a flexible polyurethane boardstock foam product.
From January 1, 2000, no person shall manufacture or import any flexible polyurethane
boardstock foam product in which any HCFC has been used as a foaming agent.
From July 1, 1999, no person shall manufacture or import for use in industrial
cleaning HCFC-141b or any product that contains HCFC-141b.
From January 1, 2000, no person shall
(a) use in industrial cleaning HCFC-141b or any product that contains HCFC-141b; or
(b) sell or offer for sale for use in industrial cleaning HCFC-141b or any product that
From January 1, 2010, no person shall manufacture, use, sell, offer for sale or
import HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b or HCFC-22, except for exportation or for use as a
From January 1, 2010, no person shall manufacture or import any product that contains
or is intended to contain HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b or HCFC-22.
From January 1, 2015, no person shall manufacture, use, sell, offer for sale or import
any HCFC except: in respect of the manufacture, sale or import of HCFC for exportation or
for use as a refrigerant before January 1, 2020.
The manufacture or import of HCFC-123 for exportation or for use as a refrigerant is
exempted until January 1, 2030.
From January 1, 2020, no person shall manufacture or import any product that contains
or is intended to contain any HCFC.
Cap level: as the Montreal Protocol.
Phase-out schedule: as the Montreal Protocol.
Use controls: none.
Cap level: 75% of that permitted under the Montreal Protocol.
-50% 1 January 2000
-100% 1 January 2015
Consumption and production of HCFCs shall be reduced by 35% by 01 January 2001, 60%
by 01 January 2007, 80% by 01 January 2010, 95% by 01 January 2013 and phase-out by 01
January 2015. Specific applications are restricted under the same timetable as Denmark.
Ban on use of HCFCs with exemptions for foam, refrigeration and medical aerosol
Cap level: 2.8% + 1989 HCFC consumption
1 January 2003: HCFC 141b Ban on production and consumption
1 January 2010: HCFC 22/ 142b Freeze on production and consumption.
Ban on use of virgin chemical unless used as a feedstock or refrigerant in appliance
manufactured prior to 1 January 2010.
1 January 2015: All other HCFCs Freeze on production and consumption.
Ban on use of virgin chemical unless used as a feedstock or refrigerant in appliance
manufactured prior to 1 January 2020.
1 January 2020: HCFC22/HCFC 142b Ban on production and consumption.
1 January 2030: All other HCFCs Ban on production and consumption.
There are extensive use controls within the USA mandated under the Clean Air Act. These
are based on a "non-essential" use ban and the use of the Significant New
Alternatives Programme (SNAP). The latter regulation defines "allowed" uses for
HCFCs on an application basis.
N J CAMPBELL