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Refrigeration Systems


The combination of the knowledge of refrigeration systems, legislation and CRTs test facilities has given us a strong understanding of the issues surrounding mobile and stationary refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.

The Montreal protocol has been successful in enforcing the phase out of ozone layer damaging CFCs and also the phasing out of HCFC in new equipment and insulation material. Now the emphasis is being shifted to GWP (global warming potential).

Many of the well established chlorine-free HFC refrigerants though non ozone layer depleting, have a high GWP. Subsequently, refrigerants such as HFC-134a, R-404a, R-407C, and R-410a are targeted by the latest F-gas directive from the EU.

The regulation introduces bans on the placing on the market of the following products:

  • Domestic refrigerators and freezers containing HFCs with a global warming potential (GWP) of 150 or more as from 1 January 2015

  • Refrigerators and freezers (hermetically sealed) for commercial use containing HFCs with a GWP of 2500 or more from 1 January 2020, and containing HFCs with a GWP of 150 or more from 1 January 2022

  • Stationary refrigeration equipment that contains or relies upon for its functioning HFCs with a GWP of 2500 or more from 1 January 2020

  • Centralised refrigeration systems for commercial use with a capacity of 40kW or more that contain or rely upon their functioning, fluorinated gases with a GWP of 150 or more, from 1 January 2022

  • Movable room air-conditioning appliances that contain HFCs with GWP of 150 or more from 1 January 2020

  • Single split air-conditioning systems containing less than 3 kg of F-gases that contain F-gases with a GWP of 750 or more from 1 January 2025

  • Foams that contain HFCs with a GWP of 150 or more, extruded polystyrene from 1 January 2020 and other foams 1 January 2023

  • Technical aerosols that contain HFCs with a GWP of 150 or more from 1 January 2018

Applications below -50C are exempt

The regulation introduces a phase-down mechanism involving a gradually declining cap on the total placement of bulk HFCs (in tonnes of CO2 equivalent) on the market in the EU with a freeze in 2015, followed by a first reduction in 2016-2017 and reaching 21 % of the levels sold in 2009-12 by 2030

The Regulation will apply from 1 January 2015 and is unlikely to be reviewed before 2022.

Read the full text of the regulation.

Advances in refrigeration will rely on the use of natural refrigerants (ammonia, air and carbon dioxide) and new refrigerants with low GWP and a high energy efficiency.

CRT can act as consultants in the following areas:

  • Chilling, freezing and thawing
  • Reductions in refrigerant leakage
  • Fault analysis
  • Energy efficiency and COP predictions
  • Trouble-shooting existing systems
  • Temperature control and control systems during, processing, storage, transport and finally retail display
  • Condensation issues
  • Water chillers
  • Advice on the alternative refrigerants
  • F gas and Stek regulations
  • Refrigerant phase out dates
  • Plant & cold store evaluation
  • Equipment conversion in refrigeration and a/c plant
  • Refrigeration plant failures
  • Enhanced capital allowances (ECAs)
  • Replacement refrigerant physical characteristics
  • Advice on ODP,MAC,TEWI,GDP,LCCP

For more information please contact CRT.


related information

International Institute of Refrigeration

Institute of Refrigeration

counterfeit refrigerants

search the library database

paper safety hazards in refrigeration

book a training courses

buy a related book

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